According to Scientists at the University of California, Riverside, thirdhand smoke can damage epithelial cells in the respiratory system by placing stress on cells causing them to fight for survival.
Thirdhand smoke, or THS, results when exhaled smoke and smoke coming from the tip of burning cigarettes settles on surfaces such as clothing, hair, furniture, and cars. Not strictly smoke, THS refers to the residues left behind by smoking.
“Our data show that cells in humans are affected by thirdhand smoke,” said Prue Talbot, a professor in the Department of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology, who led the research. “The health effects of THS, have been studied in cultured cells and animal models, but this is the first study to show a direct effect of thirdhand smoke on gene expression in humans.”
Researchers found that their data is relevant to cells deeper in the respiratory system, and also found that brief THS exposure affected mitochondrial activity. Mitochondria are organelles that serve as the cell’s powerhouses. If left unchecked, the observed effects would lead to cell death.
“Many people do not know what THS is,” said Talbot, the director of the UCR Stem Cell Center. “We hope our study raises awareness of this potential health hazard. Many smoking adults think, ‘I smoke outside, so my family inside the house will not get exposed.’ But smokers carry chemicals like nicotine indoors with their clothes. It’s important that people understand that THS is real and potentially harmful.”
The researchers obtained nasal scrapes from four healthy nonsmokers who had been exposed to THS for three hours in a laboratory setting at UC San Francisco. The UCR researchers then worked to get good quality RNA from the scrapes — necessary to examine gene expression changes. RNA sequencing identified genes that were over- or under-expressed. They found 382 genes were significantly over-expressed; seven other genes were under-expressed. They then identified pathways affected by these genes.
“THS inhalation for only three hours significantly altered gene expression in the nasal epithelium of healthy nonsmokers,” Pozuelos said. “The inhalation altered pathways associated with oxidative stress, which can damage DNA, with cancer being a potential long-term outcome. It’s extremely unlikely a three-hour exposure to THS would cause cancer, but if someone lived in an apartment or home with THS or drove a car regularly where THS was present, there could be health consequences.”
University of California – Riverside